Category Archives: Artificial Intelligence

Artificial and Augmented Intelligence

Evolution of Machine Learning

The history of machine learning begins in 1950 with Alan Turing and the “Turing Test”, a test he created to determine whether or not a computer has real intelligence. In order for a computer to pass the test, it must be able to fool a human into believing it is also human. The test basically was a guessing game. There was a judge, a female contestant and a male contestant and the based off the answers to a series of questions the judge had to choose which of the respondents was human and which was the computer. The most recent modification to the test however doesn’t involve contestants. Simply, it is a judge and a computer and the judge has to determine if the respondent is a computer or a human. Since Turing introduced this test, the results have proven to be highly influential and also regularly criticized. However, overall the test has become incredibly influential in the artificial intelligence and machine learning world.

Another major advancement that occurred in the machine learning world was in the 1990s when scientists began creating programs for computers to analyze. From the data, computers where able to draw conclusions based on the massive amounts of data they were presented with. Simply, the computers were able to “learn” from the data. Computers, like IBM Watson are now able to store endless amounts of data, ranging from different topics, and they are able to make connections between the data in order to draw conclusions. For example, in 2011 IBM Watson was put to the test. Watson went up against the two greatest Jeopardy champions. After the first round, Watson was ties for first with $5,000. However, Watson made an incredible comeback and entered into final Jeopardy with $36,681, the next player having only $5,400. This test was groundbreaking not only for the IBM team, but also for AI and machine learning. Watson was able to enter into its data base to collect data it needed to answer the question, analyze the data, and great an answer all within seconds.

In 2012, Google developed an algorithm that was able to autonomously look through YouTube videos to identify all the videos that contained cats in them. Similarly, in 2014, Facebook developed the DeepFace software which was an algorithm that was able to recognize and verify individuals based on their photos.

These singular advancements in machine learning have made huge impacts on technology today and how we use it daily. Seeing how computer intelligence went from the Turing machine up to iPhones with facial recognition is incredible and it just shows that it will continue to change rapidly and that there is still much more to learn.

Tapping into Parallel Realities with Quantum Computing

In case you still don’t have a firm grip on the concept of quantum computing the video below does a great job at explaining it. Try to make sure you have somewhat of an understanding of what’s going on or you’re sure to be even more confused by the end of this post.

In quantum computing, the user is able to run the given computations simultaneously because it allows you to tap into those parallel timelines that stack on top of each other. It does this by using qubits that can store information in more than one position at any given moment. On the other hand, in conventional computers the positions of 0 and 1 are mutually exclusive. Each addition of a qubit gives you an additional exponent of processing power by allowing you to tap into one more of these theoretical timelines. According to these quantum theorists and accompanying scientists, there are a significant number of parallel universes that have inconsistencies with the one that we are living in but are just as real and can theoretically be accessed with these computers. There are points in these parallel timelines that overlap and these are known as a nexus which allow for us to move between the given timelines. These changes  and overlapping between parallel timelines have been used to explain the global phenomenon known as the Mandela Effect. Some believe that the Mandela Effect is a consequence of traveling between these timelines as events that occurred in the past change or aren’t as you remembered them to be.

Even back in 2005 David Deutsch stated that Quantum computation will be the first technology that allows useful tasks to be performed in collaboration between parallel universes. Not many people believed him then but with increased interest in bringing quantum computers to life many of his speeches and explanations have resurfaced in the past couple of years. Below is an excerpt from a Closer to the Truth interview in which Deutsch explains the basics behind quantum computers.

There is plenty of controversy surrounding the field of quantum computing. The first question that many people ask is why there is even a need for quantum computers, as the conventional ones that we have now work well enough and anything more is unnecessary. Geordie Rose made an analogy for these critics that are still having trouble grasping the concept of quantum computing: A horse may have outran the initial Wright Brothers flight, but a plane is not supposed to be a faster horse, it is a machine that takes advantage of another resource that nature has given us (the air) to fill a particular niche that horses would never be able to fill. Quantum computers follow the same pattern. While some conventional computers may be more stable and functional that quantum computers right now, this may not be the case in the near future. Quantum computers also take advantage of their given resources, by utilizing superposition and entanglement, to perform in ways that conventional computers would never be able to do.

Depending on the intent of the user, this additional processing and computational power could have a huge positive or an equally as large devastating effect on the world of technology as we know it today. In 1994 mathematician Peter Shor discovered a quantum algorithm that could find the prime factors of really big numbers. The basis of Cryptography is that if you multiply two large enough prime numbers it will be extremely hard to break this back down into the two parts. With a quantum computer and Shor’s app, this math could easily be computed and subsequently cryptography could be cracked.

Since the creation of the first commercial D- Wave quantum computers, founder Geordie Rose has left the project and started a new project named Kindred. At the moment, Kindred is focusing on building the world’s first human-level AI which Rose assures will be created within all of our expected lifetimes. At Kindred, Rose’s team consists of 34 of the top 50 individuals in the deep learning space community, all working together to change the field of artificial intelligence as we know it. As of right now, the engineer’s at Kindred have been working with full scale humanoids known as Thromang to conduct research and practice machine learning. With some of the brightest minds that made quantum computing a reality now on board with Kindred’s Artificial intelligence project the possibilities of the technology are virtually unlimited. It is impossible to predict exactly what this field has in store for the future but with the exponentially increased processing power of quantum computers and the current level learning ability of artificial intelligence it will only be a matter of time before science fiction becomes reality.

Technology and the Art World

The age of robots is quickly approaching if not already here, and it may pose a threat to aspiring artists. There are two technological advances that will have a particular impact on the art industry: Virtual/Augmented Reality and Artificial Intelligence.

Virtual Reality devices provide fully immersive experiences that allows users to personally interact within a computer-generated, three-dimensional environment. Virtual Reality is not limited to video games. Graphic Designers may want to take a look into this, not only for game design but also for social media platforms and educational platforms. Videographers ought to consider adapting to this trend by training themselves on how to use 360° cameras. Painters may want to have a go at Google’s Tilt Brush, which allows you to paint inside a virtual reality. Augmented Reality devices allow users to function in the real world, supplemented by computer-generated information. There are an increasing number of exhibitions that allow viewers to interact with art pieces that ‘come to life’ through augmented reality with their smartphone. Those who like to stick with traditional mediums may want to consider using augmented reality to show photographs of their artworks at multiple galleries at the same time.

Machines with Artificial Intelligence function in ways normally thought to only be associated with human minds. For example, some AIs are self-learning or are able to understand human speech. What does this have to do with artists? Well, people have created algorithms that allowed them to 3D-print an original painting that looked exactly like a Rembrandt.

Scared now? But Artificial Intelligence cannot possibly encroach on the beauty of the human soul…can it? Take a look at Cozmo, an AI robot designed to mimic human emotions. Of course, this robot is not the end-all-be-all; but neither were flip-up cell phones. It may not be impractical to predict that one day, AI will be able to do everything that we artists can do.

A few consoling thoughts; I expect that ours would be one of the last occupations to be replaced by AI, considering how challenging it is to quantify emotions and personalities. I also imagine that after the robot-craze over digital realities, autonomous vehicles, 3D-printers and AI, people may look once again to the value of the ‘human touch’ and the raw, natural world. Humans are flawed, and we may need to be prepared to market that aspect of ourselves; our struggles are what makes us unique – what makes us beautiful.

It is very important for us artists to begin asking ourselves how we are going to adapt to this increasingly technological world. Once upon a time people bought from whatever artists were in the local area. Now, people can buy from any artist they like via the internet, making it all the more challenging for each one of us to stand out among millions of other artists. How exactly do we do that?

Let me explain one approach with a personal experience of mine. Two summers ago in Anchorage, Alaska, I found a very nice handmade belt with native designs on it, made by a man who called himself Ziggy. We talked briefly about our lives, and he told me that he painted most of the murals in Anchorage, learned more than 100 trades throughout the course of his life, and ran for mayor of Anchorage 3 times. After I bargained the belt down to $75, I watched him finish making it by customizing it to fit my waist. Had I seen the same exact belt for sale at Macy’s, I would never have bought it in a million years. But I got a handmade Alaskan belt made by a man with a scraggly beard who ran for mayor three times – I do not regret a thing.

There is a saying that people do not buy artwork – they buy the artist. Marketing one’s artwork on social media is just the beginning. One needs to market their personality, their character, their visions, and even other passions. Our art is not the only thing that has to be relatable; the more relatable you as a person are, the easier it becomes to make exchanges.

In summary, current technological advances have as huge an impact on our industry as any other. I strongly encourage other artists to think critically about how they can adapt to current and incoming trends in order to share their individual gifts and insights to the world.

 

This is a rough-draft article expected to publish on The Stillman Exchange sometime in the near future.

Artificial Intelligence Executive Summary: What Have We Accomplished?

What is Artificial Intelligence? According to Stanford University, artificial intelligence is “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable.” AI is the first step towards self-learning machines that seem to have two main goals: to solve problems and to make tasks easier and more efficient. To do this, it must be a flexible, rational agent that can perceive its environment in order to take actions that maximize its chance of success. Artificial intelligence is changing our lives, it is already impacting our lives in major ways today; Siri, Echo, Amazon’s purchase predictions, and certain home devices are very common examples of this. Its mark on the world has recently started to grow beyond this, and it’s doing so rapidly. AI’s have already been able to contribute to successfully trialing autonomous vehicles, composing music, writing screenplays, and beating masters at their own game (this and more will be explored more deeply during the course of this project). It’s all very remarkable, but like any progressive movements and advances, there are concerns attached. The video below discusses the current impact that AI has on our lives and the implications it has for the future, especially the replacement of human labor with AI. The speaker compares it to the impact agriculture had in the world, (which was immense by the way).

At the moment AI is nowhere near having the same powerful cross-domain ability to learn and plan as a human being does. The cortex in our brain has ways of computing that Ai developers have not been able to achieve yet. If human level machine intelligence may arrive sooner than predicted, then will we need any further technological advancements? If super intelligence is achieved, this may be the last if not close to the final invention humanity will need. With such an ability to mature a superintelligence may be able to find a cure for cancer, expand human longevity, or even space colonization. The main question is: What will AIs impact on the world look like in the future?

One of the things AI has already started to impact is the art and entertainment industries. Most of our firsthand experience with artificial intelligence in entertainment stems from farfetched cases of an undeveloped understanding of AI in vivid Hollywood scenarios. Majority of the scenarios bring to question whether advances in technology could evolve beyond our control in movies like, The Terminator, Ex Machina, and children’s action film Spy Kids. In these notable films, AI agents develop a conscious thought process equivalent of the protagonist their up against in these films. While this gives a flowery depiction of AI, the outstanding question of AI and its affinity in the context of art/entertainment remains. It’s important to understand the original purpose of AI, which is to assist humans and their interaction with technology. “The technology we have today compared to what could be is like making a stick figure drawing of Michelangelo’s David,” stated by Tim Tuttle, CEO and founder of AI firm Expect Labs. But what if that same AI technology can produce art much greater than Michelangelo’s David? When considering art, one must at some point or another question it’s origin and what makes it so special. Some people believe art comes from something beyond our comprehension; a higher power of some sort. Others believe that art at its core is a very human thing. No matter what you believe, Artificial Intelligence has the potential to disrupt your current philosophy and force you to reflect on what it all means. In 2014, Melomics released 0music – an album composed by an artificial intelligence named Melomics109 without any human intervention whatsoever. You can watch and listen to one of the songs from the album here. Now, the music isn’t anything special; it’s no Mozart or Beatles. However, it’s lack musical greatness doesn’t take away from the magnitude of the step taken. As we’ve all learned from studying disruption innovation, most disruptive innovations start out unimpressive; that’s why most people don’t pay attention until it’s too late. There are even instances where AIs are writing film scripts. AI has written Sunspring, a movie which is said to be “hilarious and intense” according to an article by Annalee Newitz. After watching the movie myself, I realized the movie had no plot, no story, and make absolutely no sense. At first I was confused and wondered if there was something I didn’t understand, since the lines didn’t flow and were a bunch of gibberish. But then I looked at the comments and realized that other people felt the same way. They wrote things like “This was like a bad lip reading video” and “I am so confused. This is like either extremely profound or completely absurd.” So basically, AI”s music and movie writing is terrible, but that’s not the point. The point is that it’s a step and a giant one.

AI is not only affecting the art and entertainment industries, but is also affecting the education industry. Milo, “A humanoid robot that engages with children with Autism and delivers research-based lessons that teach social behaviors. Here is a video explaining Milo and thoughts about this robot from our own teammate, John Ferry.

There are also endless amount of legal implications that comes with the technology of AI. Here is a video which speaks about the legal aspects and addresses questions about morals and ethics in terms of AI posted on the YouTube channel of another one of our own teammate, Matt Ehrhardt.

Back to the question presented in the beginning of this entire journey: What will AIs impact on the world look like in the future? According to an article by Max Tegmark, the AI today is only narrow or weak AI which “is designed to perform a narrow task” but the AI in the future will be general AI or AGI (strong AI) which will “outperform humans at nearly every cognitive task.” Many questions arise with this type of change into our lives. How will we be able to stop/control AI if it is designed to outsmart human intelligence? What are some of the problems that will arise because of Artificial Intelligence and how will be combat these issues? What are some of the benefits this new technology can provide? Max discusses some of the dangers that can result from future AI. In addition to being able to outperform human, AI can also do good things the “bad” way. For example, Max states how “autonomous weapons are artificial intelligence weapons that are programmed to kill” meaning that if this technology gets misplaced or put into the wrong hands, it can easily cause mass causalities, maybe even be able to “destroy the human race” as we have only seen in movies. Also, even if the end goal of AI is to do something good, it may not take the ‘safest” way to reach that goal. Max gives an examples of how if the mission of an autonomous vehicle is to take one to the airport as fast as possible, it might get one there being chased by helicopters and being covered in vomit. In an article on Business Insider by Guia Marie Del Prado, Prado states “AI could either make all of our dreams come true or destroy society and the world as we know it.” Above we discussed the dangers of AI, but what are the possible benefits? Prado discusses a number of benefits that can come from smarter and better functioning AI. The first one is that it can keep us safer, which is an obvious fact. But if autonomous vehicles become a lifestyle in the future and there are zero to no human drivers, the road for humans, pedestrians, and animals could be made much much safer. There will be no issues regarding speeding, drunk driving, or “deer on the road”. In addition to driving, AI may also be able to warn us of coming disasters and even be able to enable appropriate responses to eliminate these disasters. AI has the potential to not only become smarter than humans, but to make humans supersmart and “better at everything”. The combination of Artificial Intelligence and humans can make history with its accomplishments and help humans achieve more than they ever could alone. AI can also be able to solve the world’s problems and save the world. As Staurt Russel writes in Prado’s article: “If you had a system that could read all the pages and understand the context instead of just throwing back 26 million pages to answer your query, that kind of program could actually answer the questions asked. It’ll be like if you asked a real question and got an answer from a person who had really read all those millions and millions and billions of pages and understood them and been able to synthesize all that information.” This type of intelligence could help the world solve poverty, or diseases, or prevent wars and find solutions without having to take lives to do it. All this can happen of course, after ethics are taken in to consideration and applied to each of these aspects that AI focuses on.

Our team has researched and attacked several aspects of Artificial Intelligence and it is safe to say that the future of AI is almost the present. We don’t whether this technology is going to help us or destroy us, we don’t know whether we’d ever be able to keep it under control, or if we could ever learn to coincide with it. All we know is that it’s coming and its going to keep improving. We have just heard sporadic instances of the successes and failures of AI in the past of couple of years, but none of us ever looked deeply into this until we started Disruption. All of the things we thought we had to do to prepare for the future: take the SATs, go to college, get good grades, get an internship, we realized are all pretty insignificant to the future that is actually coming. We don’t even know if by the time of our graduation, AI has taken over half of the jobs we thought we’d have to do. What if AI becomes better at PR or accounting or determining stocks at Wall Street than we do by the time we have to find a job? What would we do? Artificial Intelligence, and other disruptive technology, is growing faster than we can imagine the most we can do right now is be digitally literate on these topics and be prepared by being FAIR for the change that is coming.

 

AI Fighting Crime

What if crime could be stopped before it even happened?  What would the world look like? Thanks to AI, researchers from Stanford University are predicting that this will be a reality in 15 years.  The term used to describe this style of crime-fighting is called “predictive policing.” Through “predictive policing,” artificial intelligence machines will identify pre-existing trends associated with crimes, and use that information to prepare.  For example, if an AI sees a person walking alone in a dark alley, the machine might use this as information to predict a robbery and prepare accordingly. This type of policing can be viewed in a positive light, seeing that it can increase the safety for everyone.  However, it can also be viewed negatively if we look at it through the lens of privacy.  If you think about it, this type of policing is incredibly overbearing.  It sees your every move… are we going to be okay with that? What a lot of people don’t know is that this kind of surveillance is already a reality.  The only difference is that now, the decisions to act can be made quicker, and hopefully more accurately.  

The Future of AI

Everyone wonders about what Artificial Intelligence will bring and how it will impact us in the future. According to an article by Max Tegmark, the AI today is only narrow or weak AI which “is designed to perform a narrow task” but the AI in the future will be general AI or AGI (strong AI) which will “outperform humans at nearly every cognitive task.” Many questions arise with this type of change into our lives. How will we be able to stop/control AI if it is designed to outsmart human intelligence? What are some of the problems that will arise because of Artificial Intelligence and how will be combat these issues? What are some of the benefits this new technology can provide?

Max discusses some of the dangers that can result from future AI. In addition to being able to outperform human, AI can also do good things the “bad” way. For example, Max states how “autonomous weapons are artificial intelligence weapons that are programmed to kill” meaning that if this technology gets misplaced or put into the wrong hands, it can easily cause mass causalities, maybe even be able to “destroy the human race” as we have only seen in movies. Also, even if the end goal of AI is to do something good, it may not take the ‘safest” way to reach that goal. Max gives an examples of how if the mission of an autonomous vehicle is to take one to the airport as fast as possible, it might get one there being chased by helicopters and being covered in vomit.

In an article on Business Insider by Guia Marie Del Prado, Prado states “AI could either make all of our dreams come true or destroy society and the world as we know it.” Above we discussed the dangers of AI, but what are the possible benefits? Prado discusses a number of benefits that can come from smarter and better functioning AI. The first one is that it can keep us safer, which is an obvious fact. But if autonomous vehicles become a lifestyle in the future and there are zero to no human drivers, the road for humans, pedestrians, and animals could be made much much safer. There will be no issues regarding speeding, drunk driving, or “deer on the road”. In addition to driving, AI may also be able to warn us of coming disasters and even be able to enable appropriate responses to eliminate these disasters. AI has the potential to not only become smarter than humans, but to make humans supersmart and “better at everything”. The combination of Artificial Intelligence and humans can make history with its accomplishments and help humans achieve more than they ever could alone. AI can also be able to solve the world’s problems and save the world. As Staurt Russel writes in Prado’s article: “If you had a system that could read all the pages and understand the context instead of just throwing back 26 million pages to answer your query, that kind of program could actually answer the questions asked. It’ll be like if you asked a real question and got an answer from a person who had really read all those millions and millions and billions of pages and understood them and been able to synthesize all that information.” This type of intelligence could help the world solve poverty, or diseases, or prevent wars and find solutions without having to take lives to do it. All this can happen of course, after ethics are taken in to consideration and applied to each of these aspects that AI focuses on.

So how is the world today preparing for the future of AI? Is there even enough going on to keep up with the new AI innovations coming out every day? In an article called “The Administration’s Report on the Future of Artificial Intelligence”, it states that the White House is aware of AI and is releasing a report on “future directions and considerations” for AI called Preparing for the Future of Artificial Intelligence. In addition to this report, the White House also holds public workshops which teach the public and get their inputs on AI, information which they include in the report.

Among the strategies:

  • Better understand the national AI R&D workforce need.
  • Develop effective methods for human-AI collaboration.
  • Develop shared public datasets and environments for AI training and testing.
  • Make long-term investments in AI research.

In this video, the speaker Jack Delosa speaks about HECI (Humanities, Ethics, Creativity, Imaginations). This acronym discusses how right now, hard skills are more looked for than soft skills. But in the future with better and stronger Artificial Intelligence, soft skills will be one of the main things employers will be looking for in humans (this being said only if AI doesn’t start to have emotions yet). He also says that “the number one skill set that exists today and that will exist in the future, that isn’t a skillset at all, is your ability to learn, unlearn, and relearn.” This is how we prepare for the future.

The future of AI is almost the present. We don’t whether this technology is going to help us or destroy us, we don’t know whether we’d ever be able to keep it under control, or if we could ever learn to coincide with it. All we know is that it’s coming and its going to keep improving.

Because We Can: The Necessity and Utility of AI in Today’s World

When people question AI the first thing they ask is never how, but instead why. In most cases the “why” question is simply answered with “because we can”. Humans usually have this tendency to solve a problem only when it occurs in their chosen path. What AI innovators are trying to do is implement AI into places where it isn’t needed, but is still greatly beneficial. This mind set is what causes disruption in the technology markets. Companies like Samsung, Apple, and google are leaders in the innovation of making things that we don’t NEED, but we still find to be convenient for us (society).

Recently Google produced a new service call Google Trips. The app based server will serve as a planner/travel guide for tourists. The app will organize plane tickets, hotel reservations, and will provide insight to new areas that the users have never been before. The app uses independent data bases to provide information about the area that the user would originally have to look up on their own. This from of AI provides a service that some consumers believe to be unnecessary. Some other apps such as Triplt are innovators this new market for easy trip planning.

Have you ever been driving around in your electric car and wondered where a charging station could be? Well now, thanks to the AI provided by Recargo, you can find a charging station in your area. Now can’t you just look that up on your own? Of course you can. Recargo uses AI to combine google street views with information from the US department of Energy. When using the app you can a charging station near you, but with google street streaming through the app you can also see the street view of the charger. Now if the charger is behind a building or down a poorly lit street you can still find it! For those special people who drive a fully electric car life just became a lot easier. No longer will they spend an extra 5 min driving around a lot to find a charging station that their phones says they have arrived at.

 

The final example of unnecessary thinking machines is one of Facebooks project in relation to FAIR (Facebook Artificial Intelligence Research). When looking at a photograph what do you do? You pick out certain things in the picture and make up an idea of what it represents. That is a drawn out description of a process that happens usually in a nanosecond. What Facebook is working on is a system that recognizes patterns in image pixels to determine what is being seen in the image.

 pic-1

This technology will be able to automatically tag items from what it recognizes in the picture. In the pictures above you would recognize and tag man, picture, camera, field, etc. The struggle of tagging an image will be a thing of the past with this new technology being rolled out by Facebook. Not only would this technology help identifying tags, but it will make storing and looking up photos easier now that they can all be tagged. In the future this technology could also describe a pictures details to a blind man. Now are either of those things totally necessary? Not really. Will our lives be better with this technology? Yes…..slightly. The term “because we can” gets a bad rap and comes off quite entitled, when in reality, it actually is a phrase that makes life easier one step at a time. When you begin to experience it yourself, then you can admire AI for what it provides and is capable of.

Artificial Art – A Follow-Up

In the blog post “Artificial art (Artificial Intelligence)” major concerns in regards to AI, specifically with art and entertainment were presented: As Artificial Intelligence advances, what will happen to our philosophies on what it means to be human? How will we react when the uniqueness attributed to being human is tested? Will this concern be fulfilled, or are we just over worrying? I think the concern will be fulfilled: in many ways, I think it’s already being fulfilled. It’s subtle, but that’s how disruption always begins. When the question related to humanity becomes more potent, I think there will be two main categories of reaction:

1) We will submit.

My gut tells me that there will be some people who will accept the idea that we are not the center of the universe, and will be so overwhelmingly humbled by it that they will submit completely. These people will either fall into complete despair or absolute joy. Here’s what I mean: Some people will take this idea, say to themselves, “We are not special… we are no different than robots” and stop there. This is a very dark place to be in; these are the people who will feel hopeless. Who can blame them? This is a soul-crushing realization! Of course, assuming there is a soul. With the advancement of AI, I think the validity of the soul will be put into question. If there is no soul, at that point, we are just bodies, right? Chemistry and biology all formed into one blob left to sit and think about how we were wrong about how “special” we are.  I think this mentality is normal when something universally accepted, even if it’s not outwardly spoken, gets tested and seemingly fails.  German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche wrote on topics very similar to this.  He made the observation that “God is dead,” and that “we have killed him.”  This quote was referring to Nietzsche’s observation that people weren’t believing in God like they used to anymore.  This meant that something that acted a huge foundation in their thinking (religion) was gone, and the philosopher knew that something had to replace it or else people would fall into despair.  I think our views on the “irreplaceability” of humanity might fall into a very similar situation as did religion at the time.

Nietzsche’s solution to the problem mentioned above was to believe in the ‘overman‘ – a being above humans that could be achieved through constantly overcoming one’s self.  This is partially what sparked the common self-help movement, and its influence is very present today.  Like I’ve been mentioning before; we hold ourselves in a very high regard.  However, when/if AI knocks us off of our high horse, I think there might be a group of people who will come to the same conclusion as the first group mentioned above, but look to something else for hope. These people, I think, will look towards the very thing Nietzsche said was dead. They will say, “Since ‘me’ isn’t all that special, it’s not about me anymore, it’s about ____.” You can fill in the blank with whatever you want, but I think it will be something religious/spiritual.

2) We will fight

I also believe there will be people who will refuse to submit to the idea that humans aren’t special. They will continue to try and accomplish the overman! I mean, come on… we’re humans! Look at all we’ve done! These people will say, “I will NOT let some robot make a bigger impact on the world than me.” It’s a very narcissistic viewpoint, but my intuition tells me many people will feel this way. These people won’t be at peace or despair; they will be in a constant state of work and improvement. They will constantly be overcoming themselves while trying to keep up with the rapid advancement of Artificial Intelligence. A positive element of this mindset is that the human will stays alive. On the other side of the coin, there’s the reality that this goal, to prove ourselves worthy, never ends.