Tag Archives: DT&L

Education- 4IR Summary

The world is on the precipice of another revolution. New technologies have allowed the human race to push for a new standard of living. In the new future we can help create a world with less poverty, where people can live longer, transform they way we consume energy so it is more efficient, and automate the workforce. These new advancements will drastically change the way we live, and after taking DT&L it has become apparent that the world is not ready for these new technologies. We are progressing so fast when it comes to technology that our society cannot catch up.This is why we have had such massive hacks on our public and private institutions. Us being behind explains why some scientists and inventors are worried with what we will do with AI. Our societal awareness is so far behind our technological awareness that disaster may be looming around the corner and we can not see it. Now how do we fix these problems? The consensus of our class is that education is the key to understanding this new future. The major issue we face, however is that the way our current educational system works is inadequate to help students prepare for this future.

Our current educational system is outdated, even by today’s standards and as the fourth industrial revolution begins our schooling system will be placed further behind than ever before. If students are unprepared for today’s economy then there is little hope schooling will prepare students for the future economy. As our economy is led into another technological revolution it is time for us to take schooling along with it. Yet, how do we do this?

The future of our education system has been a hotly debated issue in politics for decades. Programs like President George Bush’s No Child Left Behind are a recent reminder. Most people agree that there are massive flaws in the way we educate the nation’s youth. The video below went viral last year and has garnered millions of views.

 

 

There have also been many TED talks highlighting the importance of education reform and that the current way of teaching is inadequate. Below is a TED talk from Sir Ken Robinson talking about how to escape education’s death valley.

 

Both of these videos highlight two important flaws that our education system has: It is a rigid system and it stifles individuality. Since there are millions of students in America it was seen as an easier solution to standardize the basics. Standardized tests decided where kids can go to school, which states receive grants, and hammer in basic study skills to students. This system has in turn stifled individuality and this is an issue because it handicaps students who think differently, a perfect analogy is teaching a goldfish to climb a tree. This standardization and mechanization of our education system has held it back from change. Sir Ken Robinson create a good point in his TED Talk, “Education is not a mechanical system it’s a human system.” The main issue plaguing education is that it has failed to adapt to the individual needs of the student and has forced students into a box. Thankfully with the new technologies ushered in by the Fourth Industrial Revolution we have the potential to individualize education and make it possible for every student to learn at their own pace, so everyone can prepare themselves for the future.

 

AI will change the way students from all age groups will learn. The current education system has been in place for over one hundred years and the same static classroom look has not changed. Artificial Intelligence will change the general approach to education to a more focused and refined version for each student. AI will be able to detect what subjects are harder for students at an earlier age and will be able to work with that student to improve his/her skills. The more individualized the education is, the more likely the student will gain more out of the class. Education with the help of AI will become more immersive and will become a long term approach to generating new skills for students. Giving students exposure to smart boards and new online tools such as Slack, will empower them to learn and become more efficient. Artificial intelligence is one the most important technologies in the contemporary world, it is apart of everyone’s daily lives and we are bounded to the power it gives us. The classic student and teacher relationship will become more engaging and less hierarchical. Virtual reality and AI will go hand in hand to create a new way of learning. The ability to learn anytime and anywhere will change the way we view schools and rigid structure.  

 

There is another question we have to ask ourselves when we update our education system What do we want to get out of it? When we are able to create an education system that adapts new technologies and embraces a student’s individuality the question becomes what will we teach. The video below gives a quick explanation on what the new curriculum should be.

 

Near the end of this video an interesting point was made. Education should not end at a certain point, people can continue to grow and learn even after they are no longer in school. With the help of the internet and sites such as Udemy, people can learn new skills at a cheap price. With this new technology and system, adults can learn and experience new things just as students do. This is the future of education and this will help fix the issues like rigidity and lack of individuality. The internet is excellent at passing on information fast and creating new content in response to changing times. With online classes and YouTube teaching channels students can learn what they want to learn and in depth. All of human knowledge and history is available for humans to view. When a new disruptive technology enters the world economy, people will be able to go to the internet and learn how to adapt. In the future someone can learn new skills that will allow them to succeed in an ever changing economy.

The fourth industrial revolution is coming and it is going to completely change the way we see the world. Currently we are unprepared for this revolution. In order to become prepared we have to look at our current education system and fix the flaws plaguing it. We have to make education more personal and fitting for every student and make the system less rigid. Today we have the technology and equipment to implement this properly. In the future we can have an economy that will produce disruptive technologies, but we do not have to fear it. Using the internet we can have people constantly learning new things and adapting themselves to the changing world around them. As talked about in the last POV by some students, we have to keep ourselves up to date. We believe that this dream can be a possibility and that we can update education to fit the challenges of the future and a 21st century world.

Gene Therapy Update: How it Works and Why it’s Risky

Gene therapy has the potential to be the most innovative and disruptive medical procedure in the modern world, but it is still in its earliest stages of development. Technology moves faster than any other industry on the planet, but when paired with science and medicine, the pace may be so fast that it becomes detrimental. Gene therapy is equal parts technology and medicine and there will be an eternal struggle between the two. From a technological standpoint, it’s full steam ahead for companies like CRISPR. For those focused on the medical side however, there is a long road ahead. It is important to remember that the success of gene therapy depends first on the development of the technology, but without testing and a safe implementation in the medical field, no lives will be saved. It is much different than Silicon Valley pushing Face ID or a new app because in both of those instances, the faster the technology is available to consumers the better, or so they have us believe. When Apple pushes new tech like Face ID, they know that they can usually work out the bugs with a software update, but things aren’t that simple when the technology involves pumping new genes into people’s bodies.

The science behind gene therapy is just as amazing as the technology behind deciding which specific genes need attention. In order for a patient to receive the treatment, the new genes must be introduced into the body via a number of possible procedures. The most common of which include specifically placed injections or IV treatments, depending on the disease the treatment is aimed to fight and where the problem is within the body. Once inside the body however, the procedure is essentially the same. The new or modified genes are brought to their desired locations using a vector. The most common vectors are bacteria, viruses, and plasmids. They are the most common because while they are completely different, they all share the essential characteristic of being able to multiply quickly once in a cell. Under normal circumstances, their hyperactivity is a bad thing because it is the very reason that diseases are able to spread so quickly. In gene therapy however, this trait makes them the perfect candidates to transport genes. The video below provides a visual demonstration of this process during a treatment of a retinal disease.

The use of vectors is relatively consistent across all forms of gene therapy, however, there are several different methods used to treat different diseases. On the most basic level, there are two forms of gene therapy, somatic and germline. Somatic treatments are targeted at cells that do not produce eggs or sperm, therefore the treatment will not be passed down to subsequent generations. Conversely, germline treatments target cells that do produce sperm or eggs, which means that any alterations made to cells in the patient’s body will be passed down. Germline treatments are arguably more dangerous because if something goes wrong during the procedure or if the new genes are incorrect, the faulty DNA will be passed down until it is corrected by another procedure.

Under the umbrella of somatic and germline treatments are three main forms of therapies that vary depending on the problem. The therapies include gene augmentation, gene inhibition, and targeted cell attacks. Gene augmentation is used when a cell has faulty DNA that needs to be corrected. In this case, the new genes are attached to a vector that will reproduce in the desired cells, and will replace the existing DNA in the hopes of delivering the correct directions. Gene inhibition does the opposite, as gene inhibition treatments are designed to stop cells from behaving a certain way instead of correcting an undesired behavior. This form of gene therapy is useful for treating cancer patients because the goal is to slow down the reproduction of cancerous cells. This is achieved by attaching genes to a vector that will tell the cancerous cells to stop reproducing. Doctors also have the ability to target a cluster of cells that they wish to eliminate altogether. This is achieved by either injecting vectors that will kills the cells directly, or by using vectors that will trigger an immune system response which will in turn kill the desired cells. This is slightly less effective because the vectors are used to trick the body into fighting a disease that it did not otherwise recognize. Regardless of the objective of the various forms of gene therapy, vectors are the most effective vehicles to deliver new genes to cells.

While the vectors are very useful for delivering the new genes to their desired targets, there are many risks involved with the procedure. Success of the treatment aside, there are risks associated with the injection alone. It is a high-risk procedure because while it can be extremely effective, it can just as easily catalyze a series of detrimental reactions within the body. If the new DNA is delivered to the wrong cells, it can disrupt necessary functionality completely unrelated to the disease it was aimed to fight. If the vectors used in the procedure trigger an unexpected immune system response, the treatment can be rejected altogether or in some cases even cause organs to fail.

Jesse Gelsinger’s story serves as a grim reminder of the unintended consequences of gene therapy. Jesse suffered from a rare metabolic disorder called ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency, which made him an ideal candidate for a gene therapy experiment at the University of Pennsylvania. The vector that was used in the procedure was a weakened cold virus which was delivered via injections. The doctors at Penn had tested their vector on mice, baboons, monkeys, and one other human patient, so they were confident that Jesse had a real chance of improving. What the doctors did not predict, was the overwhelming inflammatory response that started a chain reaction in Jesse’s body. A mere 24 hours after the injection, there was 11 times the normal amount of ammonia in Jesse’s blood, he was hyperventilating, his ears had swollen shut, he had developed a blood clotting disorder called jaundice, his kidneys were starting to fail along with his lungs, and his brain had started to shut down. Shortly after the doctors thought they had things under control, Jesse died. His death marked the first documented casualty resulting from gene therapy and left the doctors in shock.

Jesse’s premature death exemplifies the uncertainty involved with gene therapy, and there will undoubtedly be others. The technology is so new that is impossible to predict the outcome of the treatments with any degree of certainty. On paper, Jesse’s treatment should have worked but all of the years of testing and analysis that took place before the procedure were flipped upside down when his body started to reject the treatment. The best doctors in the world cannot explain what caused Jesse’s body to react the way it did which speaks to the unpredictable nature of the technology. Gene therapy is an amazing advancement for both technology and medicine, but it is still wildly imperfect and will require many more brave patients like Jesse before it becomes a dependable procedure.

 

317 – Digital Transportation

In last week’s blog post, I discussed how Amazon is impacting markets through digital transformation. Their easy online services and innovative technologies, including Amazon Go, make it difficult for large department and grocery stores to compete. However, there is one market Amazon has left untouched, and that is the transportation market.

Over the past few decades, transportation has become much more advanced. New technology has brought new ideas to the market, and companies implementing these new ideas are the ones coming out ahead. One of the major new players to make a splash in the automotive market is Tesla, and their development of high-performing autonomous vehicles is one ought to pay attention to.

Tesla is America’s top Electric Car company creating disruption in the automotive market. In recent years, car companies have adopted Tesla’s innovative ideas to create green and autonomous vehicles. The shift from gas to electric is basic, but developing brand new technologies for cars is more complex and challenging to work with. Therefore, car companies are forced to make a leap of death in order to compete: either roll out autonomous vehicles or go bankrupt trying. However, this technology will not come without controversy.

There are many reasons why autonomous driving is disruptive, minus the fact that it will take over millions of driving jobs. Overlooked problems of autonomous driving are the accidents that take place on the road. What if two autonomous vehicles get into an accident? Who is liable when neither person had control of the car? These are issues that need to be addressed legally.

Another problem with autonomous driving is that many people are going to want to take a nap when they hit the road, and that just cannot happen. Tesla has technology that can detect whether the driver is asleep behind the wheel or not, so no one can drive with both eyes closed. I do not see this feature going away anytime soon, and I hope legislation does not change that.

Finally, the last problem I see with the brand new vehicles coming out is the WiFi feature. I really do not think it is smart to put a ton of wireless access points in cars when it is really easy to hack into them. I saw this video below some time ago, how a few hackers were able to control a person’s vehicle while in use through WiFi connection.

This must be prevented from becoming a common occurrence.

There is missing legislation in regards to autonomous vehicles, and many hiccups will come with drafting this legislation. Will it be ethical for there to be autonomous taxis in a world where you cannot fall asleep behind one (an autonomous vehicle)? Should steps be taken to limit the power of autonomous vehicles? Questions like these will all have to be answered in time, but should be answered sooner rather than later. Before we eliminate manuals and automatics, we need to understand autonomous first.

Rising Sea Levels Will Soon Flood Our Coastal Cities

Our coastal cities and islands are under threat from the rising sea levels caused by climate change. By 2050, it is predicted that New York City will be flooded by six feet of water and some pacific islands, like Nuatambu, were swallowed by the rising sea level. There is no clear way to prevent the impacts a raised sea level will have on these cities or how to prepare for the consequences to come. However, there are some solutions scientists are trying to implement to mitigate the effects of rising sea levels. One of the methods they are hoping will help is the living shoreline. A living shoreline is a shore-protecting technique that utilizes mostly natural materials. There are different types of living shorelines to accommodate different types of coasts and an important quality of the living shoreline is that they are not too disruptive of the existing ecosystem.

The different types of living shorelines can be seen here:

However, issues do arise with this solution. Many large cities will not be able to build these types of shorelines into their existing infrastructure. For example, New York City could build a bulkhead around lower Manhattan, but they run the risk that the waves will either erode the wall and cause it to crumble or the sea level will rise over the wall, rendering it useless. Similarly, Florida already has marshes covering a majority of their northern coasts, but they are still at risk from flooding. Another issue that arises is islands would not benefit from a living shoreline. They simply do not have enough land to implement the living shoreline so another solution would have to be used. Living shorelines are not a long-term solution, but they will be able to protect our coastal cities until we are able to either halt or at least slow down the rise in sea level.

Another way cities and scientists are trying to protect coasts from rising sea level is by building canals throughout the city. This way, water would move throughout the city rather than being pushed up against a solid wall like a bulkhead. In Boston after Hurricane Sandy, a proposal was brought to the city to build canals throughout the city. The canals would move the water into low-lying back alleys and drain them throughout the city instead of letting it impact one place- more like a controlled flood. However, that kind of project comes with many questions like how they would build such a project, how deep the canals would need to be, and how effective this would all be if the canals proved to be too shallow in fifty or so years. A lot of the “solutions” people are coming up with are only going to temporarily fix the issue. While this is not effective for the long-term, it gives scientists more time to try to test out new ideas that could be more lasting.

The final and longstanding solution is artificial islands.

Artificial islands are man-made islands built to withstand waves, currents, high winds and can be built relatively easily. They are the best solution to rising sea levels because they are not affected by rising sea levels after they are finished. It solves the issue of where to put people displaced by hurricanes and flooding. They would include solar panels and wind farms to power them and make them completely self-sustainable. Some risks and issues that come with artificial islands are the risks of hurricanes, whether they can only be built in warmer climates and how they would manage waste. Nevertheless, these floating islands seem to be the best bet in the face of rising sea level.

The rise in sea levels is the effect of three primary causes: thermal expansion, melting of glaciers and polar ice caps, and ice loss from Greenland and West Antarctica. Thermal expansion is direct result of global warming and the only way to combat it would be to lower the emissions we currently put out. The melting of glaciers and polar ice caps are also a direct result of global warming, but there is no way to reverse the effect. We will need to adjust our lives to the rising sea level and lower the temperature of the water to cut risk. The final cause is ice loss from Greenland and Antarctica which means the water from those two poles is streaming into the ocean at a faster rate than normal. Coupled with thermal expansion and the extra water from the glaciers means the sea level has risen substantially in the last decade. Additionally, we really need to think about what we are going to do about the rising sea levels and what would happen if we did not change a thing. Another issue is the many islands that do not have the means of mitigating the effects rising sea level brings.

How DT&L and Virtual Reality Changed Me

Hello everyone! For my blog post this week, I thought it’d be fun to share a video of how DT&L, and Virtual reality really opened my eyes. In the video I discuss my reasons why I took Disruption, Technology, and Law, what VR and AR are, and the most interesting aspects of them I learned. It’s been an eye opening class, and I don’t regret taking it at all. DT&L is and always will be an eye opening class. I have learned more about myself that in any other course. Enjoy my video, and feel free to leave comments!

Will Central Banks Approve of Blockchain Technology?

Blockchain is the future. This statement has become a fact in recent months, and it is simply a matter of time before it is fully implemented into our financial system. The question we are faced with is simple: What will be the impact of Blockchain on Central Banks?

The argument presented by many technology websites is that Blockchain technology will free up billions of dollars for banks, in turn revolutionizing the finance industry. Financial institutions will completely change their system, a system that has been in place for over one hundred years.

Four major banks are at the forefront of the Blockchain revolution. UBS Group AG, Bank of New York Mellon Corporation, Deutsche Bank AG, and Banco Santander S.A. are teaming up in order to create a digital-only payment system that will improve trade settlements immensely.

This system will provide generous cost savings because it will allow back-office settlement systems to process trades far more rapidly than they do today. It is going to streamline the process and make it more efficient. Experts in the industry estimate that financial institutions spend over $65 billion each year to clear and settle trades.

This is where we get to Central Banks. All of these predictions about broad success and cost-savings will only work with adoption central banks. The Federal Reserve, the Bank of Canada, and the Bank of England have all launched investigations into digital currencies, questioning the security of digital currencies, and also the stability of the banking system.

If the plan succeeds, it will save billions of dollars for banks, however, for that to happen, the system would need to obtain approval from central banks.

The Dutch central bank is one that the Federal Reserve should be taking some notes from. They have begun developing an internal Blockchain prototype that they hope to launch in the next year. The Bank of England is not far behind, with the deputy governor for monetary policy, Ben Broadbent, indicating that a central bank-issued digital currency is soon to come. It will allow for the ability of banks to extend loans should consumers migrate to the digital currency. Researchers in the United Kingdom have also proposed a new cryptocurrency that the Central bank might look towards adopting. The French central bank said that distributed ledger models will replace the traditional operating mode clearinghouses.

Here you can see how the Hong Kong central bank is looking to leverage Blockchain!

One thing is sure for the future, the Central Banks will make sure to keep their leverage throughout the expansion of Blockchain.

Blockchain Technology and the Disruption of the Financial Services Industry

Blockchain technology can be applied to more than just money, but for today’s post, we will be focusing on its impact on the finance industry. As the weeks go on, we will focus on an individual industry, but since it is the most famous, we will dive deep into the rise (and fall?) of bitcoin along with other ways in which finance will change forever due to the growth of Blockchain. As you might recall from our first post, forty of the world’s top financial firms are experimenting with the technology. To this date, there has been over $1 billion invested in Bitcoin, the most popular form of Blockchain.

 

 

Bitcoin is possible because of Blockchain technology, however, Bitcoin is not Blockchain! Bitcoin has fallen short of expectations, so make sure to understand that finance and Blockchain in the future is not necessarily bitcoin. Bitcoin is a distributed and decentralized digital currency. Some of the cons of Bitcoin is that you can’t move your existing money, have to pay wildly unpredictable fees that are high and rising fast, its suffering large backlogs and flaky payments. Blockchain is the underlying protocol behind the technology of the currency. The strength behind Blockchain technology is in the authenticity of records, content and transactions, and its decentralized nature. This opens up the possibilities of many uses.

 

For starters, we have IBM working on harnessing the power of Blockchain. IBM’s Blockchain solution combines data provided by the participants in the network, creating a consolidated and detailed view of transactions that is visible to all parties. The outcome of this solution is a significant reduction in number of disputes, dispute cycle time, and improvement in productive use of working capital. Key features of IBM Blockchain are immutability, non-reputability, and privacy guarantees provide a safe, trusted and decentralized ledger for sharing information, while retaining role-based control of its visibility to other participants in the network.

 

 

 

J.P. Morgan Chase is also another financial giant jumping on the Blockchain train. They are working on using the technology in a manner that would allow the bank to use a publicly available system for confidential transactions. It is interesting to note JP Morgan’s outlook on making it a public network instead of a private one like most institutions have incorporated. Cybersecurity is one of the major benefits of Blockchain that we stressed in our first blog post.

Another giant, Barclays, has just completed a Blockchain trade finance transaction. Two of its partners, Ornua and Seychelles Trading Company, successfully transferred trade documentation via a Blockchain platform created by Barclays’ program Wave. This means that in the future, adding multiple parties to a distributed ledger system can remove one of the biggest “headaches” associated with global trade, the movement of the paper documents that track and authenticate the transactions that have occurred.

 

Blythe Masters, CEO of Digital Asset Holdings, has said that Blockchain will have a significant impact on Financial Industries. Economic transactions on a digital ledger can be programmed to record any type of financial instrument. These systems tackle settlement latency in mainstream financial markets. This means the entire lifecycle of a trade, including its execution, the netting of multiple trades against each other, reconciliation of who did what with whom, and whether they agree, can occur at the trade entry level. That’s much earlier in the stack of process than what you are accustomed to seeing in mainstream financial infrastructure.

 

Disruption Occurring in the Media and TV Industry

Throughout the entire semester, we’ve detailed the disruption of the media and television industry. From the rise of video giants like Blockbuster to their ultimate demise, we’ve seen how seemingly untouchable businesses can fall victim to disruption. The current landscape shows mainstream use of online streaming services. These platforms provide consumers with not only more convenient options, but increased offerings tailored to viewer preferences. With the widespread adoption of these services, along with other platforms that offer services similar to cable at a cheaper price, more consumers than ever are cutting the cord.  Watch a summary of our findings below:

 

To learn more about the processes and programs we used to facilitate our learning, click here.

Here’s our take on how to adapt to these disruptive times in the media and television industry.

 

History of the Smartwatch

History of the Smartwatch:

First episode of a series called a Series of Disruption in and of Wearable Technology. When you have a second to watch this video, pay attention to the evolution of Smartwatches, and how it has not just been a desire recently to own a smartwatch…but since 1880.

You will witness the 5 milestones to the existence of the Smartwatch derived from The Smartwatch Group:

  1. Foundation
  2. Imagination
  3. Electronification
  4. Experimentation
  5. CommercializationThe 5 Milestones

Moore’s Law:

After discussing present day devices, we go into exactly how this is all possible. How computers are developing to be faster and smaller, and why we are capable of creating such innovative devices that we have wanted since 1880. Furthermore, Moore’s Law is defined as, by Gamespot.com as the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit would double around every two years.

Thanks for watching!

-Deniz